Policy & History | U.S. Virtual Embassy Iran
From the CIA-orchestrated overthrow of Iran's prime minister to a BBC News looks at more than 60 years of tricky US-Iran relations. Iranian engagement with the UN's nuclear watchdog and diplomatic activity follows. It also put US-Iranian government relations on a collision course, His first foreign trip as president was to Iran's nemesis, Saudi Arabia, where. In April , Iranian-American journalist Roxana the United States released five Iranian diplomats.
Iranians' suspicion that the Shah was actually trying to conspire against the Iranian Revolution grew; thus, this incident was often used by the Iranian revolutionaries to justify their claims that the former monarch was an American puppet, and this led to the storming of the American embassy by radical students allied with the Khomeini faction. Bush and other VIPs wait to welcome the former hostages to Iran home On 4 Novemberthe revolutionary group Muslim Student Followers of the Imam's Lineangered that the recently deposed Shah had been allowed into the United States, occupied the American embassy in Tehran and took American diplomats hostage.
The 52 American diplomats were held hostage for days. In Iran, the incident was seen by many as a blow against American influence in Iran and the liberal-moderate interim government of Prime Minister Mehdi Bazarganwho opposed the hostage taking and resigned soon after. Some Iranians were concerned that the United States may have been plotting another coup against their country in from the American embassy. The crisis ended with the signing of the Algiers Accords in Algeria on January 19, On January 20,the date the treaty was signed, the hostages were released.
American contact with Iran through The Hague covers only legal matters. The crisis led to lasting economic and diplomatic damage. On 7 AprilCarter severed diplomatic relations between Iran and the United States and they have been frozen ever since. Instead, parts of the embassy complex were turned into an anti-American museum, while other parts became offices for student organizations.
However, Iran later chose Pakistan to be its protecting power in the United States. Economic consequences of the Iran hostage crisis[ edit ] See also: Sanctions against Iran Families wait for the former hostages to disembark the plane.
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Before the Revolution, the United States was Iran's foremost economic and military partner. This facilitated the modernization of Iran's infrastructure and industry, with as many as 30, American expatriates residing in the country in a technical, consulting, or teaching capacity. Some analysts argue that the transformation may have been too rapid, fueling unrest and discontent among an important part of the population in the country and leading to the Revolution in According to American officials, most of those were released in as part of the deal to release the hostages.
Commercial relations between Iran and the United States are restricted by American sanctions and consist mainly of Iranian purchases of food, spare parts, and medical products as well as American purchases of carpets and food.
Sanctions originally imposed in by President Bill Clinton were renewed by President Bush, who cited the "unusual and extraordinary threat" to American national security posed by Iran. The executive orders prohibit American companies and their foreign subsidiaries from conducting business with Iran, while banning any "contract for the financing of the development of petroleum resources located in Iran".
The ILSA was renewed for five more years in Congressional bills signed in extended and added provisions to the act; on September 30,the act was renamed the Iran Sanctions Act ISAas it no longer applied to Libya, and extended until December 31, Reagan administration[ edit ] See also: United States support for Iraq during the Iran—Iraq war American intelligence and logistical support played a crucial role in arming Iraq in the Iran—Iraq Waralthough Bob Woodward states that the United States gave information to both sides, hoping "to engineer a stalemate".
Bush authorized the sale to Iraq of numerous dual-use items, including poisonous chemicals and deadly biological viruses, such as anthrax and bubonic plague. Hezbollah bombings[ edit ] The United States contends that Hezbollaha Shi'ite Islamist organization and client of Iran, has been involved in several anti-American terrorist attacks, including the April United States Embassy bombing which killed 17 Americans, the Beirut barracks bombing which killed US peace keepers in Lebanonand the Khobar Towers bombing.
An American district court judge ruled in that the April United States Embassy bombing was carried out with Iranian support.
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Lamberth declared that the Islamic Republic of Iran was responsible for the attack in a case brought by the victims' families.
Lamberth concluded that Hezbollah was formed under the auspices of the Iranian government, was completely reliant on Iran inand assisted Iranian Ministry of Information and Security agents in carrying out the operation. Anti-communist purge[ edit ] According to the Tower Commission report: Inthe U. Using this information, the Khomeini government took measures, including mass executions, that virtually eliminated the pro-Soviet infrastructure in Iran.
Iran—Contra affair In violation of an arms embargo, officials of President Ronald Reagan's administration arranged in the mids to sell armaments to Iran in an attempt to improve relations with Iran and obtain their influence in the release of hostages held in Lebanon.
Oliver North of the National Security Council then diverted proceeds from the arms sale to fund Contra rebels attempting to overthrow the left wing government of Nicaraguawhich was in direct violation of the United States Congress ' Boland Amendment. Iran lost one major warship and a smaller gunboat. Damage to the oil platforms was eventually repaired. The court dismissed the claim but noted that "the actions of the United States of America against Iranian oil platforms on October 19, Operation Nimble Archer and April 18, Operation Praying Mantis cannot be justified as measures necessary to protect the essential security interests of the United States of America.
Iran Air Flight [ edit ] Main article: Iran Air Flight George H. Bush said that he would "never apologize for the United States of America. I don't care what the facts are. The United States initially contended that flight was a warplane and then said that it was outside the civilian air corridor and did not respond to radio calls. Both statements were untrue, and the radio calls were made on military frequencies to which the airliner did not have access. For the next year, Mossadeq passes reforms limiting the Shah's unconstitutional powers.
Mossadeq is deposed by his military officers in a coup orchestrated by American and British intelligence agencies, restoring power to the Shah. Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, a religious leader and fierce critic of the Shah, begins what would be 14 years of exile in Iraq. The US-backed Shah is forced to flee to Egypt. Khomeini returns from exile and seizes power.
The new Iranian government terminates its membership in the Baghdad Pact. Iranian students seize 63 hostages at the American embassy in Tehran demanding the return of the Shah to face trial. The US severs diplomatic ties and imposes sanctions on Iran.
Iran–United States relations - Wikipedia
In a war that would last for the next eight years, Western-backed Iraq invades Iran. The last 52 hostages are freed a few hours after Jimmy Carter, the then US president, leaves office. They were held for days.
These illegal funds are used to help Nicaraguan rebels. This comes to be known as the Iran-Contra scandal.US - Iran Relations: Decades of tension between the two countries
This follows an incident a month earlier when the same cruiser opened fire on Iranian small boats searching a bulk carrier. Iran remains neutral during the Gulf War. Oil and trade sanctions are imposed on Iran by Bill Clinton, the then US president, after he accuses Tehran of sponsoring terrorism and seeking to acquire weapons of mass destruction.
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Mohammed Khatami is elected president of Iran. He calls for dialogue with the American people in an interview on US network television. Clinton extends sanctions on US oil contracts with Iran after Iranian reformists win in the general election. Madeleine Albright, the then US secretary of state, meets with Kamal Kharrazi, the then Iranian foreign minister, at the UN for the first such talks since the Iranian revolution in The US accuses Iran of being directly involved in the bombing of an American military base in Saudi Arabia, evoking an angry rejection of the charges by Tehran.
Iran's first nuclear reactor at Bushehr begins construction with the help of Russian technicians, prompting strong objections from the US.
The US accuses Iran of a clandestine nuclear weapons programme with two nuclear sites under construction at Natanz and Arak. The International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA concludes that the nuclear sites at Natanz and Arak are indeed under construction but designed solely to provide fuel for future power plants. Iran agrees to tougher UN inspections of its nuclear facilities and to suspend its uranium enrichment.
The IAEA reports that Iran admitted to producing plutonium but cites no evidence of trying to build a nuclear bomb. After earthquakes kill up to 50, people in the Iranian city of Bam the US sends humanitarian aid to help. Iran agrees to a European offer stipulating that Iran suspend its uranium enrichment in exchange for trade concessions.
Bush backpedals from his usual hard-line stance and says the US will back the EU negotiating track, offering economic incentives in exchange for Iran abandoning its nuclear aspirations.
Bush also announces the lifting of a decade-long block on Iranian membership of the World Trade Organisation. The US says that Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, the newly-elected Iranian president, was a leader behind the hostage crisis in but is uncertain of his role in taking the American prisoners. Washington denies a claim reported in The New Yorker suggesting that the US may be planning a tactical nuclear strike against Iranian underground nuclear sites.