Figure–ground (perception) - Wikipedia
Figure–ground organization is a type of perceptual grouping which is a vital necessity for Figure–ground reversal may be used as an intentional visual design technique in which an existing image's foreground and background colors are. This is an example of a figure-ground relationship because of the .. natural shapes (a butterfly and two men) this time formed by a figure ground relationship. Figure 2. Examples of lower-region cue to figure-ground assignment: both A and B are They were all in their twenties: 12 females and two males. .. Davis, DA ( ) The relationship between two perceptual processes and attribution style.
In this light, Bayesian figure—ground segmentation models have been proposed to simulate the probabilistic inference by which the brain may distinguish figure from ground. Figure—ground reversal may be used as an intentional visual design technique in which an existing image's foreground and background colors are purposely swapped to create new images.
Non-visual[ edit ] Figure—ground perception can be expanded from visual perception to include abstract i. The actual ground is the figure.
Figure Ground Relationship – A Key Composition Tool
There are three types of figure—ground problems: The figure and the ground compete. Our eyes assemble the content blocks into a single page. We humans like to make quick sense of things that would otherwise be upsettingly disordered.
We dislike flux and need to find meaning quickly. The eye can swiftly pick out any variances, and the user can quickly provide feedback on changes made — without the need for content. When there is missing information in an image, the eye ignores the missing information and fills in the gaps with lines, color or patterns from the surrounding area to complete the image.
The eye tells us otherwise. The panda is incomplete there are no lines around the white areasbut our eyes perceive a whole panda despite this.
It takes some effort to overcome and notice the otherwise random black shapes and spots that appear on every piece of white background we can eventually make ourselves see. For example, we look at grouped elements and see them as moving in a similar direction.
Above two of them, put a little arrowhead. Now, notice that these two circles are different from the others, but in the same way.
The elements do not have to be moving though they can bebut they must suggest motion for this law to work in your designs. Designing with the Law of Common Fate in Mind - The law of Common Fate plays an important role in design, for example, with nested menus and content. Take the example of LinkedIn as shown in the image up there at the start. LinkedIn have used the law of common fate to build a relationship between sub-menus.
- The Law of Common Fate
- What Is Figure-Ground Perception?
- It goes by many names
When you move over a menu item, the sub-menu item moves in the same direction as the last. This creates a link between sub-menus in the minds of the users. The Take Away The principles of perceptual organization defined by Gestalt Psychology provide us with valuable knowledge so we can design effective, efficient, and visually pleasing displays. Throughout three articles, we have reviewed the most relevant for you as a designer: As we have seen, we have many exciting ways to reach our users with designs.
Are you ready to apply them?
Moreover, contrary to what was expected, the graph also shows that the average differences in performance between groups A and B on the blob stimuli are not significant: Click to view enlarged table Figure 8.
This graph examines the effects of word difficulty. Click to view enlarged table Figure 9. Click to view enlarged table Figure Average reaction times on the blob and word stimuli for all subjects.
Click to view enlarged table Of special concern to this investigation was that the performance on the first blob stimulus be significantly different in the two groups, since the subjects in group A were semantically cued while those in group B were not.
Similar results were found for the word stimuli, even though they exhibit greater variability.
How to Use Figure to Ground Art Theory in Photography
The only trend that seems significant is the decrease in reaction time between the blob and the word stimuli when going from the first presented blob to the first presented word: Change on average from blobs to words for group A: Furthermore, there were differences between the two groups: Click to view enlarged table Discussion This pilot study investigated four important factors in the perception of figure-ground reversible displays, which had not been studied together previously.
These factors are figure-ground ambiguity, bottom-up versus top-down processing, local versus global perception, and semantic priming. In summary, there seems to be a significant difference in performance on the word versus the blob stimuli, which confirms the hypothesis that performance is considerably faster on naming a word than a blob.
Furthermore, there is a stable, even if not significant, difference in performance between the cued group A and the un-cued group B on the blob stimuli, implying that semantic cuing facilitates the identification of an ambiguous stimulus, which supports the conclusions of Davis et al.
These findings also support Parks If the word identification depended on the processing of local features alone, then there would have been more variability since the features are different in the different words. Were the blob stimuli of an equal difficulty level, we would expect them to show little variability in reaction time on average since their identification also depends mainly on global perception.Principles of Art - Figure Ground Relationship
Interestingly, even though all subjects were told that this was an ambiguity perception study, subjects were often not able to identify the word in a blob stimulus for as long as 1 minute. This seems to contradict the findings of Girgus et al. However, in the present study, the effect of knowledge of ambiguity was not investigated, so no conclusions can be drawn in this respect.
Furthermore, it is possible that the stimuli were altogether too difficult to demonstrate the effect of this variable. This shows that they had already designated the blobs to be the figure before they could recognize the object depicted by this figure. As for the predictions that the first figure-ground ambiguous blob trial subjects would have a significantly longer reaction time than for subsequent trials and that reaction time would decrease with trials, our findings somewhat confirm the first part of the hypothesis, but are absolutely inconclusive about the second part.
The results were insignificant, so interpretation would only be speculative and no conclusions should be drawn.
Limitations If the hypothesis is wrong, then our results indicate precisely what they should. However, if the hypothesis can be demonstrated to hold, then there are a number of reasons why our results did not accomplish this. The limitations of this study include the small sample size, the special population of psychology perception students from which this sample was drawn, the nature of the stimuli, and the cultural factor in perceptual organization, which was not taken into account in the present study.
First, the small sample size and the special population from which it was drawn might have had a number of effects on the results.
Small sample sizes allow greater manifestation of individual differences, such as imaginatively, reading, cultural and language background, gender, age, and up-bringing. It has been reported that individual differences are a considerable factor with respect to figure-ground perception e.
For example, studies show that males perform better on figure-ground perception ability tests e. Davisand that figure-ground discrimination is poorer in older individuals Roper et al. There were only two males among the 14 subjects in this study, and all subjects were in the same age group, so it was not possible to investigate the effect of these individual differences as well as others on the identification of the ambiguous blob stimuli.
Second, Ganguli and Broota have reported that cultural factors play a significant role in the disambiguation of ambiguous figure-ground situations. They have related differences in the performance of subjects with different cultural background on tasks based on figure-ground ambiguity with difference in child-rearing practices.
In the present study, cultural differences were not systematically investigated, but they did seem to have an effect: This considerable difference cannot be attributed to reading abilities, since the two cultural groups performed approximately equally on the word stimuli with non-native English speakers having an average reading speed of 1.
Furthermore, the effect of cuing seems to be the same for the two groups, doubling the reaction time when going from the cued group A to the uncued group B for non-native English speaker, group A showed a mean of This interesting outcome seems to imply that the differences between the two cultural groups is not related to their English reading abilities, or to the effect of semantic priming, but may well be related to their up-bringing and cultural heritage.
Such cultural factors can also be used to explain the observed ceiling effects. Third, another important source of variability may be the nature of the stimuli.
The stimuli were especially created for this study, so the possible effects of their particular characteristics could not be avoided. Such characteristics include difficulty level, word choice, and color. This study established that the blob stimuli were indeed of varied difficulty, which certainly could have contaminated the investigation. Furthermore, the choice of words for both the blob and the word stimuli may have been inappropriate.
This concerns several issues: Both of these aspects could have influenced the performance of the subjects. Another issue is that some of the noun words were concrete nouns e. Finally, the color of the stimuli purple may also have influenced performance, or at least the extent to which semantic cuing had an effect, since we are used to seeing words printed in black.
A number of studies have concluded that color has an effect on reading speed. Most studies have dealt with the effect of differently colored backgrounds for reading texts e.
Thus, if changing the background color makes a difference, then so should changing the color of the foreground, even if to a lesser degree. In conclusion, we suggest a number of ideas for future research in the field.
In particular, in light of the above analysis and interpretation, a study of the effect of cultural background on the identification of ambiguous figure-ground word stimuli may turn out very fruitful and interesting.
The Laws of Figure/Ground, Prägnanz, Closure, and Common Fate - Gestalt Principles (3)
Despite the statistically insignificant results of this experiment, this research is important, not only because it gives rise to a number of possible future studies, thus contributing to the field of perception research, but also because it has broader implications, academic as well as practical, for other areas, such as education, sociology and cultural studies.
Determining the effect of the foreground color of text, of ambiguous blobs on reading speed, and the identification of ambiguous stimuli can be used in education to facilitate verbal as well as pictorial learning and comprehension. Findings concerning gender, age, individual differences, and culture effects on figure-ground disambiguation can be used in sociology and anthropology in interpreting, for example, social group preferences and practices in child upbringing, art, and situational analysis and behavior.
Evidence from a priming paradigm. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance.
22 best figure ground images on Pinterest | Negative space, Dibujo and Drawings
Harcourt Brace College Publishers: Croyle, LC Visual perceptual problems in reading: The effect of color and contrast. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Davis, DA The relationship between two perceptual processes and attribution style.
Davis, J et al.