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The general study of the relationships between motion, forces, and energy is called mechanics. It is a large field and its study is essential to the understanding of. The second law of motion explains the relationship between force, mass, and acceleration. The relationship of force to mass and acceleration can be expressed. A Strategic Relationship between EMEC and FORCE. 1 . information, data and reports of collaborative activities carried out under this Relationship may be.
Incidentally, this is also the origin of the words "physician" one who studies the nature of the human body and "physique" the nature or state of the human body.
Each refers to a discipline or branch of physics, thus the common suffix -ics. Each word can also be changed from a noun to an adjective. This gives us words like dynamic, static, kinematic, mechanical, dynamical, and physical.
We can also make adverbs like dynamically and physically. Here are the relevant nouns, each followed by brief definition and a semi-long-winded story about its origin. For many readers, the brief definitions will be good enough. Mechanics The branch of physics dealing with motion and forces. The word mechanics did not acquire its current meaning until sometime in the Seventeenth Century — probably by the Irish chemist Robert Boyle — Mechanics can be divided into the subdisciplines of kinematics, statics, and, dynamics.
Historically statics came first antiquitythen kinematics for the subject, for the wordthen mechanics as a wordand finally dynamics s as a word. Conceptually mechanics contains dynamics, which overlaps with statics and kinematics. Dynamics The study of motion and forces together.
That sounds a little too informal. The study of the effect that forces have on the motion of objects. The word dynamics was invented in the late Seventeenth Century just to be a word that meant the opposite of the word statics.
Credit goes to the German mathematician and philosopher Gottfried Leibniz — Leibniz is mostly known as the co-creator of calculus with the English scientist and mathematician Isaac Newton — Leibniz and Newton may have argued about priority, but more of Leibniz lives on in calculus than does Newton.
He also coined the term coordinate axes and named the axes abscissa and ordinate. The word did not immediately jump into the English language because Leibniz thought in German, wrote in French and Latin, and wrote for a Continental European audience.
Statics The study of forces without regard to motion. Technically, statics is the study of forces in the absence of acceleration. One way to not be accelerating is to not move. In that special case, both velocity and acceleration are zero.
Basically, the phrase describes the skills that a structural engineer would need. A knowledge of the way the weight of a building or bridge or tower is distributed so that it stays standing in place. Although originally all about weight, statics as a branch of mechanics now covers all forces and statics as a part of structural engineering includes subjects like wind loads on tall buildings and buoyant forces from groundwater on basements.
Statics and structural engineering are about more than just weight. Kinematics The study of motion without regard to the forces affecting it.
The Meaning of Force
The concepts of distance, displacement, and time are ancient if not primitive. The concepts of speed, velocity, and acceleration seem like they should be as well, but any formal definitions prior to the Sixteenth Century do not seem to exist.
Pretty much all credit for this goes to the Italian scientist Galileo Galilei — and his groundbreaking work on the subject, known in English by the short name of Two New Sciences. Galileo wrote in dialog form and brilliantly so with no equations. This was partly because mathematical notation didn't exist like we know it now, but mostly because he wanted to make his book approachable. Just three learned gents passing the time talking about the latest advances in science.
Galileo would not have used the word kinematics, however or even physics. It might not have even been thought of as a branch in need of a name.
He did not invent the word cinema, since motion picture technology did not evolve into a business until some 60 years after his death — although his work may have inspired the word. It's missing one key concept, possibly the most important concept in all of mechanics, possibly in all of physics, possibly in all of science — energy.
Because energy arose as a concept after this scheme was created, a name was never assigned to the branch of mechanics dealing with energy. There is a word energetics, but it doesn't seem to be popular in general physics textbooks. The equivalent concept in general physics is called thermodynamics, which started out as the study of work done by thermal processes but expanded into the more general law of conservation of energy.
Energetics The study of the transformation and distribution of energy during processes within systems. The word energy in English has been used to represent concepts such as strength, efficacy, persuasiveness, action, resourcefulness, and skill. It didn't acquire its current physical meaning until the Nineteenth Century.
Think of words like enable to make possibleenamor to inspire loveencode to translate into codeand endanger to put in danger. For example, the effect of a Newton upward force acting upon a book is canceled by the effect of a Newton downward force acting upon the book. In such instances, it is said that the two individual forces balance each other; there would be no unbalanced force acting upon the book. Other situations could be imagined in which two of the individual vector forces cancel each other "balance"yet a third individual force exists that is not balanced by another force.
For example, imagine a book sliding across the rough surface of a table from left to right. The downward force of gravity and the upward force of the table supporting the book act in opposite directions and thus balance each other. However, the force of friction acts leftwards, and there is no rightward force to balance it. In this case, an unbalanced force acts upon the book to change its state of motion. Sliding friction results when an object slides across a surface. As an example, consider pushing a box across a floor.
Types of Forces
The floor surface offers resistance to the movement of the box. We often say that the floor exerts a friction force upon the box. This is an example of a sliding friction force since it results from the sliding motion of the box. If a car slams on its brakes and skids to a stop without antilock brakesthere is a sliding friction force exerted upon the car tires by the roadway surface.
This friction force is also a sliding friction force because the car is sliding across the road surface. Sliding friction forces can be calculated from knowledge of the coefficient of friction and the normal force exerted upon the object by the surface it is sliding across.
The coefficient value is dependent primarily upon the nature of the surfaces that are in contact with each other. For most surface combinations, the friction coefficients show little dependence upon other variables such as area of contact, temperature, etc. The more that surface molecules tend to adhere to each other, the greater the coefficient values and the greater the friction force. Friction forces can also exist when the two surfaces are not sliding across each other.
Such friction forces are referred to as static friction.
Types of Forces
Static friction results when the surfaces of two objects are at rest relative to one another and a force exists on one of the objects to set it into motion relative to the other object. Suppose you were to push with 5-Newton of force on a large box to move it across the floor. The box might remain in place. A static friction force exists between the surfaces of the floor and the box to prevent the box from being set into motion.
The static friction force balances the force that you exert on the box such that the stationary box remains at rest. When exerting 5 Newton of applied force on the box, the static friction force has a magnitude of 5 Newton.
Suppose that you were to push with 25 Newton of force on the large box and the box were to still remain in place. Static friction now has a magnitude of 25 Newton.