Understanding Insulin Resistance: Diabetes Forecast®
High levels of blood glucose can damage the tiny blood vessels in your kidneys, Type 1 diabetes is also called insulin-dependent diabetes. When a person has type 1 diabetes, the body still can get glucose from food, but the lack of insulin means that glucose can't get into the cells where it's needed. Another hormone, glucagon, works with insulin to control blood glucose levels. In most people with type 1 diabetes, the body's immune system.
So the glucose stays in the blood. This makes the blood sugar level very high and causes health problems.
Once a person has type 1 diabetes, the pancreas can't ever make insulin again. To fix this problem, someone who has type 1 diabetes needs to take insulin through regular shots or an insulin pump.
Type 2 diabetes is different from type 1 diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas still makes insulin.
But the insulin doesn't work in the body like it should and blood sugar levels get too high. What Causes Type 1 Diabetes? No one knows for sure what causes type 1 diabetes, but scientists think it has something to do with genes. Genes are like instructions for how the body should look and work that are passed on by parents to their kids.
But just getting the genes for diabetes isn't usually enough. In most cases, something else has to happen — like getting a viral infection — for a person to develop type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes can't be prevented.
Doctors can't even tell who will get it and who won't. People can have diabetes without knowing it because the symptoms aren't always obvious and they can take a long time to develop. Type 1 diabetes may come on gradually or suddenly. When a person first has type 1 diabetes, he or she may: If these early symptoms of diabetes aren't recognized and treatment isn't started, chemicals can build up in the blood and cause stomach pain, nausea, vomiting, breathing problems, and even loss of consciousness.
Doctors call this diabetic ketoacidosis, or DKA. There's good news, though — getting treatment can control or stop these diabetes symptoms from happening and reduce the risk of long-term problems.
Type 1 Diabetes | NIDDK
How Is Type 1 Diabetes Diagnosed? Doctors can say for sure if a person has diabetes by testing blood samples for glucose. If the doctor suspects that a kid or teen has diabetes, he or she may send the person to see a pediatric endocrinologist — a doctor who specializes in diagnosing and treating children and teens living with diseases of the endocrine systemsuch as diabetes and growth problems.
How Is Type 1 Diabetes Treated? People with type 1 diabetes have to pay a little more attention to what they're eating and doing than people who don't have diabetes. Sometimes people who have diabetes feel different from their friends because they need to take insulin, think about how they eat, and control their blood sugar levels every day. Some teens with diabetes want to deny that they even have it.
They might hope that if they ignore diabetes, it will just go away. Sweating Weakness After many years, diabetes can lead to serious health problems, and as a result, many other symptoms.
Type 1 Diabetes: American Diabetes Association®
Exams and Tests Diabetes is diagnosed with the following blood tests: This must be confirmed with a fasting test. Ketone testing is also used sometimes. The ketone test is done using a urine sample or blood sample. Ketone testing may be done to determine if someone with type 1 diabetes has had ketoacidosis.
Testing is usually done: Check the skin and bones on your feet and legs. Check if your feet are getting numb diabetic nerve disease. Have your blood pressure checked at least once a year. Have an A1C test done every 6 months if your diabetes is well controlled. Have the test done every 3 months if your diabetes is not well controlled. Have your cholesterol and triglyceride levels checked once a year.
Get tests once a year to make sure your kidneys are working well. Visit your eye doctor at least once a year, or more often if you have signs of diabetic eye disease.
See the dentist every 6 months for a thorough dental cleaning and exam. Make sure your dentist and hygienist know that you have diabetes. Treatment Because type 1 diabetes can start quickly and the symptoms can be severe, people who have just been diagnosed may need to stay in the hospital.
If you have just been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, you may need to have a checkup each week until you have good control over your blood sugar. Your doctor will review the results of your home blood sugar monitoring and urine testing. Your doctor will also look at your diary of meals, snacks, and insulin injections.
Type 1 diabetes
It may take a few weeks to match the insulin doses to your meal and activity schedules. As your diabetes becomes more stable, you will have fewer follow-up visits.
Visiting your doctor is very important so you can monitor any long-term problems from diabetes. Your doctor will likely ask you to meet with a dietitian, clinical pharmacist, and diabetes nurse educator. These providers will also help you manage your diabetes.
But, you are the most important person in managing your diabetes. You should know the basic steps of diabetes management, including: How to recognize and treat low blood sugar hypoglycemia How to recognize and treat high blood sugar hyperglycemia How to plan meals, including carbohydrate carb counting How to give insulin How to check blood glucose and urine ketones How to adjust insulin and food when you exercise Where to buy diabetes supplies and how to store them INSULIN Insulin lowers blood sugar by allowing it to leave the bloodstream and enter cells.
Everyone with type 1 diabetes must take insulin every day. Most commonly, insulin is injected under the skin using a syringe, insulin pen, or insulin pump. Another form of insulin is the inhaled type. Insulin cannot be taken by mouth because the acid in the stomach destroys insulin. Insulin types differ in how fast they start to work and how long they last.
Your doctor will choose the best type of insulin for you and will tell you at what time of day to use it. Some types of insulin may be mixed together in an injection to get the best blood glucose control.
Other types of insulin should never be mixed. Most people with type 1 diabetes need to take two kinds of insulin. Basal insulin is long-lasting and controls how much sugar your own body makes when you are not eating. Meal-time nutritional insulin is rapid acting and is taken with every meal.
It lasts only long enough to help move the sugar absorbed from a meal into muscle and fat cells for storage. Your doctor or diabetes educator will teach you how to give insulin injections. At first, a child's injections may be given by a parent or another adult.
By age 14, most children can give themselves their own injections. Inhaled insulin comes as a powder that is breathed in inhaled. It is rapid acting and used just before each meal.