Muslim Brotherhood of Syria - Wikipedia
The Syrian conflict offers a unique opportunity for the Muslim Brotherhood to . powerhouse for all Muslims in the world”8, supported its standoff against Iran. The Society of the Muslim Brothers better known as the Muslim Brotherhood is a transnational .. Iranian Call and Reform Organization, a Sunni Islamist group active in Iran, . The instability and conflict with the monarchy has led the relationship . The Muslim Brotherhood in Syria was founded in the s ( according to. How does the Muslim Brotherhood view Iran's anti-Western policies the Muslim Brotherhood envision in a post-Assad, post-conflict Syria?.
Later, this line of thought became the master narrative of the two movements of Islamic Revolution of Iran and the global Brotherhood. In many Sunni countries, the Brotherhood did the same within their local context and with a Sunni jargon.
In Saudi Arabia, Islam and the state are two separate entities that have come together only on the basis of the exigencies of practical politics. Hence, Saudi Arabia supports a minimalist, literal reading of Sharia law in which what matters are symbolic private laws and issues of personal piety including the hijab, abstinence from alcohol, marriage and divorce, and so on.
Saudi Arabia throughout its modern history has suffered from two legitimacy crises that has made it a perfect grounding site for the Republican Islamist critique. On the other hand, its monarchical system of governance has been ridiculed as a symbol of Muslim backwardness.
Based on the changing geopolitical environments, the kingdom has defined new friends and foes to tackle these existential crises. It has used Salafi Islam to target communism as the greatest threat to Islam in order to divert the assail of criticism pointed at it. It has funded jihadists in Pakistan and Afghanistan.
The Syrian Muslim Brothers and the Syrian-Iranian Relationship
It has assailed the Arab nationalism of Nasser. More recently, however, the most vigorous ideological threat to the Kingdom has come from the Iranian Revolution. Many houses and stores were destroyed and people were killed. Internally, many Muslim Brothers in Syria and abroad were granted amnesty, and many were released from jails. He also allowed the opening of new Qur'anic schools and the building of new mosques, and he lifted the restrictions on Islamic publications and dress.
He felt that he needed new allies in the region, and therefore began to enhance his relations with different countries and Muslim organizations.
Among the countries with which Asad chose to strengthen his alliance was the Islamic Republic of Iran.
During those years the Syrian authorities accorded privileges and protection to some major Iranian opposition figures. Khomeini declined Asad's invitation, and instead settled in Paris until the revolution, when he returned to Iran as head of state and became the only leader in the Muslim world to combine political and religious authority through the doctrine of velayat-e faqih.
Shortly after assuming his position, Khomeini began calling for Islamic revolutions across the entire Muslim world. The Syrian Muslim Brothers saw this as a positive step for change, and hoped that it would lead to a similar revolution in Syria and the overthrow of the oppressive "Asad rule.
Following the revolution and the overthrow of the Shah, Iran became a kind of informal center for the Shi'a of different countries. The Iranians tried to export their revolution to neighboring Arab states, causing turbulence in Arab Gulf states with Shi'ite populations such as Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and Bahrain.
Inthe Iranians even backed an unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Sunni government of Bahrain, a country with a Shi'ite majority. These Iranian terrorist actions in support of other Shi'ites led to a violent response by the Kuwaiti Sunni Muslim Brothers, who bombed Iranian offices in Kuwait. The Kuwaiti Brothers even denounced the Shi'a as anathema. It is hard to explain the reasons behind Khomeini's preference for Asad over the Muslim Brothers, or as Martin Kramer puts it, "when religion is subordinate to politics, miracles again become possible, and Syria's 'Alawis may get recognition as Twelver Shi'is.
Parallel with the growing ties between Syria and Iran, the Muslim Brothers of Syria supported and were supported politically and financially by the Iraqi regime under Saddam Husayn. In a book written by Sa'id Hawwa, the chief ideologist of the Syrian Muslim Brothers in the s, he stressed that the People of the Sunna are the real Muslim community, thus widening the gap between the Muslim Brothers and Iran.
In March of the same year, some Iranian "tourists" who were actually Iranian revolutionary activists had visited Syria and distributed posters of Khomeini and hung religious slogans on the walls of the Damascus airport and its surroundings. The Iranian leadership did whatever was needed to maintain its alliance with Syria, the only Arab state with which it had good relations.
At present, the Shi'ite Hizbullah of Lebanon, currently under the leadership of Secretary General Hasan Nasrallah, is another ally of the Asad regime, constituting the third component of the Shi'ite triple alliance. In the early s, while the Syrians were in Lebanon, the Iranians began to cultivate the Shi'ite community of Lebanon.
Iran sent Shi'ite clerics to the country to indoctrinate the local Shi'ites with their ideology. Iran supplied Hizbullah with money, weapons, and military and religious guidance,72 in addition to supporting health, education, and social welfare institutions.
This allegation was not true in the s, when the relationship between Hizbullah and the Asad regime was marked by tension.
The Syrian Muslim Brothers and the Syrian-Iranian Relationship
During the s, relations between Syria and Hizbullah were indeed more of a rivalry than an alliance, despite Iran's dissatisfaction with this lack of accord between her two allies. After Hizbullah abducted a number of Western citizens, Syrian troops deployed in Beirut's southern suburbs, where 23 Hizbullah members were subsequently killed. As a result thousands of outraged Lebanese Shi'ite mourners protested against Syria, with some even accusing it of conspiring with Israel.
But Iran, knowing this was not true, warned Syria that any action against its allies in Lebanon would be considered an attack against Iran. As it became increasingly isolated from the rest of the Arab and Western states, Iran's relations with Syria became more valuable, especially since there were some diplomatic efforts made on the part of the Arab states to separate the two allies and restore Arab unity.
This incident was regarded by Saudi Arabia as an Iranian plot intended to shake the foundations of Sunni Saudi Arabia. The situation deteriorated to a level where the Iran-Iraq War became regarded as war between the Arabs and the Persians. According to the Brothers, the latter's plan is obvious, but the Shi'ite Iranians manage to obtain Sunni support by waving the flag of war against the Zionists and the Americans, while their genuine aim is to take over these countries and rebuild the Shi'ite Safavid empire.
Deviation in Beliefs and Deviation in Behavior al- Khumayniyya: In his book, Hawwa quotes from works written by Khomeini himself that, according to Hawwa, reveal the deviation in Khomeini's thoughts and Shi'ite beliefs.
Hawwa goes so far as to regard the Shi'ites and Khomeini as a danger to the existence of the Sunni world, warning young Sunnis against believing the false statements of this "Muslim Revolution.
To prove his claims, Hawwa points to the Iranian interference in Lebanon and its support for Shi'ite movements such as Hizbullah and Amal, and also presents the odd relationship between Iran and Syria.New video sheds light on Iran's role in the conflict in Syria
In his view, the main purpose of the Iran-Iraq War was to "conquer" Iraq and turn it into a Shi'ite state, and then conquer the rest of the Gulf Arab states as a preliminary stage in taking over the whole of the Sunni world. Rafsanjani and the Presidents who suceeded him, under the guidance of Khameine'i, pursued Khomeini's legacy.
These actions caused tension between Syria and Iran, but after the failure of these talks, the tension between the two allies declined. After the Iranian Revolution and the imposition of religious rule, Iran sought an ally in the region, and Syria was that ally.
It is fair to say that these two countries built their alliance out of mutual necessity. Over the years their alliance faced numerous obstacles, but managed to survive. Many elements contributed to the survival of this alliance, amongst them the failure of the peace talks in the Middle East, the Palestinian problem, and Western policy that seemed to favor the Israeli side, thus driving Syria to seek a strong ally as a counterweight. Asad's commitment to the Palestinian cause did not change the attitude of the Muslim Brothers towards him, because they still regarded his regime as an oppressive, sectarian regime and sought to overthrow it, and his alliance with Shi'ite Iran only aggravated them and aroused their suspicions.
To support their claims of this purported scheme, they rely on an alleged secret letter that was published in by the Iranian Sunni League in London, and which they claim was sent from the Iranian Revolution Assembly to different Iranian provinces.
The duration of each stage of this plan is ten years, with a total duration of 50 years. The plan's goal is to unite the Muslims by striking at the Sunni regimes that consider Shi'ite doctrine heretical. According to the plan, controlling these countries would result in control of half the world. The first step of this plan is: When the cultural, the economic and the political relations between Iran and those states are good, it will be easy for Iranian agents to enter those countries as immigrants.
They will foster good business and personal relations with the powerful figures in these countries, obey the laws of these countries, and obtain permits to celebrate their feasts and to build their own mosques Obtain local nationality through bribes or by using their connections.
Muslim Brotherhood - Wikipedia
Encourage the young Shi'ites to incorporate themselves within the local administrations and to enlist in the local army Arouse suspicion and mistrust between the local authorities and the [Sunni] religious authorities by spreading flyers allegedly published by religious leaders criticizing the actions of the local government. This action would lead to friction in the relations between the two sides causing the government to suspect every act of the religious leaders. The third step is: Then begins the step of striking at the local economy.
When mistrust is caused between the religious and political leaders and the collapse of their economy, anarchy will prevail everywhere, and the agents will be the only protectors of the country. After building trust with the ruling elite, the crucial stage will begin by announcing the political leaders as traitors, thus causing their expulsion or their replacement by the Iranian agents.
Incorporating Shi'a in the different governmental offices will arouse the anger of the Sunnis who will respond by attacking the government. The agent's role at this point is to 'stand by' the head of state and buy the property of those who decide to flee the country.
The fifth step is: After taking over the country, Shi'ism will be imposed. The aim of these articles was to reveal the Iranian scheme and the true face of the 'Alawi regime.
In his articles, Dr. Yusuf begins with a description of how the Shi'ite Safavids took over Iran inand how their influence expanded to Iraq down to the present time. In addition, he emphasizes that the Iranians' cruel treatment of the Sunni inhabitants under their rule is an illustration of their hate for the Sunnis.
Yusuf's allegations coincide with Khomeini's declarations. In his speeches and religious sermons, Khomeini regarded some Sunni governments as illegitimate, claiming that the only truly Islamic state was Iran, and thus believing that Iran has the right to force these states including by the use of violenceeven those that claim to advocate Islamic law, to adopt reforms.
He fiercely attacked Saudi Arabia, the unofficial leader of the Sunni world, for betraying Islam, as well as Saddam Husayn's Iraq, which he regarded as an infidel, atheistic government. The Muslim Brothers believe that the overthrow of Saddam coincided with the goals of Iran, which, according to the Brothers, is working inside Iraq more than ever to turn it into a Shi'ite state. Yusuf, what we are seeing now in countries such as Iraq, Kuwait, Bahrain, Sudan, Yemen, Jordan, Syria, and Lebanon is the implementation of the Iranian five-stage scheme.
In Syria, for instance, the plan is being implemented under the protection of the Asad regime, and it is the duty of the Muslim Brothers to stop them and "save" Syria. Is it the existence of foreign weapons, troops, and military bases such as the Iranian weapons, troops, and military bases that exist in Damascus? Is not the massive Iranian missionary activity in the villages and the towns of Syria under the protection of the government an attempt to turn them into Shi'a?
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Is not taking over some regions, by buying them or by using force, and building shrines on them through the help of the government an attempt to turn Syria into a Shi'ite center? They say that they strive for 'Muslim Unity' and wage actions against the West and the Zionists to deceive the Muslim world and build their Empire.
According to the Muslim Brothers, Hizbullah's provocative act, in which two Israeli soldiers were abducted in Julyprecipitating that summer's Israel-Hizbullah war, only caused the destruction of Lebanon because the war's goals, such as freeing Lebanese prisoners in Israel and liberating the Sheb'a Farms, the Golan Heights, and Palestine, were never achieved.
According to the Muslim Brothers, the Lebanese discovered that this "Divine Victory" was their destruction, rather than the destruction of the Zionist enemy. The Muslim Brothers regard the war with Israel as a part of the Iranian scheme. The goal of the war was not to fight in Lebanon's name, but to destroy the country as a preparatory step to taking it over by causing the fall of its legitimate government, and dominating the country in accordance with the Iranian scheme.
Yusuf relies on Iranian statements during the war, in which they declared that if the war extended to Syria, they would stand by the side of the Syrian regime.
This was as a retribution after a failed terrorist attack on an Alawite village near Hama. During a day moratorium on the application of the 7 July law, over a thousand Muslim Brothers turned themselves in, hoping to escape the death penalty; information published about them in the official press may give some insight into the composition of the Brotherhood's membership at that time.
Most of those who gave themselves up were students under twenty-five years of age, from Damascus and other large cities; others were schoolteachers, professors or engineers. On 2 Februarythe Brotherhood led a major insurrection in Hamarapidly taking control of the city; the military responded by bombing Hama whose population was aboutthroughout the rest of the month, killing between 10, and 30, people. The tragedy of the Hama Massacre marked the defeat of the Brotherhood, and the militant Islamic movement in general, as a political force in Syria.
After his death inAssad was succeeded by his son, Bashar al-Assadwho initially signalled greater openness to political debate.
In Mayencouraged by a new political climate, the Muslim Brotherhood published a statement in London rejecting political violence, and calling for a modern, democratic state. Many political prisonersincluding Muslim Brothers, were pardoned and released. However, this reform was short-lived; in the same year, the few political freedoms that had been granted were abruptly revoked. Riyad al-Turka secular opposition leader, considers it "the most credible" Syrian opposition group.
The Brotherhood has continued to advocate a democratic political system; it has abandoned its calls for violent resistance and for the application of shari'a law, as well as for Sunni uprisings against Alawites.
Al-Turk and others in the secular opposition are inclined to take this evolution seriously, as a sign of the Brotherhood's greater political maturity, and believe that the Brotherhood would now be willing to participate in a democratic system of government.
Hamas is Muslim Brotherhood, but we have to deal with the reality of their presence", comparing Hamas to the Syrian Muslim Brotherhood which was crushed by his father Hafez al Assad. He then allegedly claimed Hamas would disappear if peace was brought to the Middle East. In August,expatriated Syrian oppositionists formed the Syrian National Council to seek international support for the uprising.