Death poem - Wikipedia
Since each daimyo was a retainer of the shogun, the bakufu or shogunate had Foreign relations were crucial because control of them made a statement to the. When a daimyo lord married a daughter of the shogun, the ceremony was more formal; visual documents of the marriage on which even the names of the game boxes; leisure articles such as poem-matching cards; musical instruments; a. Daimyo were classed according to their relationships to the shogun as kinsmen ( shimpan), hereditary vassals (fudai), and less-trusted allies (tozama; meaning.
The Japanese worldview which was an amalgamation of Confucian, Buddhist, and Shinto beliefs emphasized a schematized social system where loyalty, deference to authority, and a rigid class system kept Japan in relative peace and prosperity for close to a millennium.
But everything seemed to have changed during the Ashikaga bakufu. To add fuel to the fire of chaos, it was in the mid-sixteenth century that Westerners, in the form of Portuguese traders and Jesuit priests, entered Japan. Guns and cannons first brought by the Portuguese were duplicated in mass by Japanese entrepreneurial daimyo and metal workers. The Portuguese were astounded at the lack of loyalty and the ubiquitous betrayals between jito and daimyo.
It seemed that everyone, including farming villages, chose to follow whoever promised the lowest taxes along with the maximum protection. War and plunder characterized both the countryside and the imperial capital. While the emperor and shogun still held their titles and positions, they were powerless against the tide and momentum of civil wars across the domains.
The situation was akin to the British tale of Humpty Dumpty, the English egg fallen off a wall and scattered into hundreds of pieces. There were not enough imperial officials and bakufu samurai to put Japan back together again. And then three men changed everything. The Three Unifiers Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and Tokugawa Ieyasu following the Japanese pattern of the surname coming before the given name were all samurai from central Honshu.
Their personalities and careers are contrasted by the following two anecdotes.
A story is told that there was a bird that refused to sing. Nobunaga kneaded the dough; Hideyoshi baked the pie; and Ieyasu ate the pie. The following paragraphs flesh out the meaning of these apocryphal stories. InOda Nobunaga inherited the portion of land that his father protected and he began to extend his hegemony to other districts within Owari. As noted above, this was the common practice of the day.
Nobunaga had all of these items in his toolkit. Like other opportunists that extended their authority, Nobunaga needed a big break to attract masterless samurai and farming villages. That small marvel came in when a leading daimyo, Imagawa Yoshimoto from the neighboring Suruga Province led an army of 40, to squash the upstart Oda Nobunaga. Having secured his eastern flank, Nobunaga turned his attention to consolidating his hold on central Honshu.
An early adopter of gun weaponry, Nobunaga established an armory at Sakai and successfully integrated these weapons in his battle plans.
Seeking greater legitimacy, Nobunaga marched into the imperial capital in Nobunaga planned to rule behind the scenes and simply use Yoshiaki as a political puppet. The plan went awry when Yoshiaki failed to defer to Nobunaga; subsequently, Nobunaga brought the Ashikaga shogunate to an end in Eschewing the need for bakufu authority, Nobunaga defeated six of the strongest military houses in western Honshu.
In a particular battle at Mount Hiei, over ten thousand Buddhist monks from the Tendai sect begged Nobunaga to accept gold from the institution rather than taking their lives.
Nobunaga refused the overture and slaughtered the monks. Nobunaga had ten major daimyo who reported to him and he often sought their advice. He was open to criticism from those close to him, and expected candor from his generals rather than patronizing acquiescence.
Between and Nobunaga lived in relative peace in a castle close to the imperial capital.
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He was not given the title of shogun, but was not bothered by this given his belief that brute power legitimizes authority. But in his rise to power he had to make difficult decisions that garnered him many enemies—even from within his own ranks. In while Nobunaga was at a Kyoto Buddhist temple for a tea ceremony, he was caught by surprise when Akechi surrounded the temple to exact revenge against his master.
He set the temple on fire and Nobunaga along with his son died. Thus, the meteoric rise of the lowly jito from Owari came to a sudden ignoble end. Nobunaga had accomplished a great deal. He began the process of unification, removed the Ashikiga shogunate, and established a modicum of order across Honshu.
Yet, his legacy in Japanese history is mixed. There were still independent domains scattered throughout Honshu particularly the extreme eastern portion of the island and Kyushu was dominated by two autonomous daimyos. Furthermore, it was not clear as to who would take control of the lands and peoples that Nobunaga had managed to unite.
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Toyotomi Hideyoshi was the son of a low-ranking samurai in the Owari domain. When Hideyoshi was in his mid-teens he walked off the farm and sought attachment to an established or up-and-coming daimyo. He placed his bets on the rising star Oda Nobunaga. It was a good bet. The two main holdouts were the Kyushu domains and the extreme eastern section of Honshu controlled by the Hojo House. A primary concern for Hideyoshi was the elimination of large armies that had plagued Japan for decades during the Sengoku era.
He began his policies of peace by disarming the farmers. In Hideyoshi ordered that all weapons be taken away from farmers. No longer could daimyo co-op farmers to serve as infantry soldiers, as farmers were prohibited from owning weapons. Some of the swords collected from the farmers were melted down and the metal used to form a large Buddha statue. For the Buddhist leaders, they had a new statue in the Asuka-dera monastery in Nara.
Samurai enjoyed the exclusive status of sword-carrying privilege throughout the realm. If one was wearing a sword, then everyone knew that individual was from the samurai class. The sword brought with it both status and privilege and now only the samurai could carry such a weapon. But not all was lost for the peasants. On the heels of this famous sword hunt, Hideyoshi froze the social order.
This was to the advantage of the common folk because they were no longer intimidated by their military neighbors and were more free than ever to work the land. Rural lands were all placed in categories such as wet land, dry land, residence land and kitchen gardens.
Rice paddies were labeled superior, medium and inferior based on farming records. Following this massive undertaking, the government, now under the rule of Hideyoshi, issued documents to families who had worked that land for generations.
Furthermore, each village was assessed a certain amount of annual tax usually paid in rice based on the cadastral survey. The harvested rice was measured in terms of koku which was around pounds each or about 5. The implications of this project were massive. Government officials knew how much annual revenue to expect and planned accordingly.
Farmers knew how much they were to be taxed and their annual contribution to the village—tax was collected at the village level.
This also led many farmers to seek ways to improve their harvests as they would not be penalized for growing more than the cadastral assessment—the tax was at a fixed amount. Based on this survey, Hideyoshi divided the responsibility of ruling Japan to his generals. In addition to the geographical division of the land, Hideyoshi also noted how much koku each general should receive based on their domains.EU4 Guide: Become Shogun as Ryukyu (or Anyone)
For example, while his top general, Tokugawa Ieyasu was given the eastern provinces to govern, he also knew that these provinces annually produced 2. This fostered a sense of reciprocity and loyalty between Hideyoshi and his military governors. During the last decade of his life, Hideyoshi veered away from his reliance on diplomacy and acted somewhat erratically.
It was a common practice in feudal Japan for a higher-ranked warrior to bestow a character from his own name to his inferiors as a symbol of recognition.
From the local Lord 's perspective, it was an honour to receive a character from the shogunatealthough the authority of the latter had greatly degenerated in the midth century. Technically, Harunobu, as well as his forefathers, had borne the surname of Minamoto. Although widely known by the dharma name, Takeda Shingen's formal name remained "Harunobu" throughout the rest of his life. He had been an accomplished poet in his youth. He assisted his father with the older relatives and vassals of the Takeda family, and became quite a valuable addition to the clan at a fairly young age.
Inat the age of 15, he was instrumental in helping his father win the Battle of Un no Kuchi. He finally succeeded insuccessfully taking control of the clan. Events regarding this change of leadership are not entirely clear, but it is thought that Nobutora had planned to name the second son, Nobushigeas his heir instead of Shingen. The end result was a miserable retirement that was forced upon him by Shingen and his supporters: For their help in this bloodless coup, an alliance was formed between the Imagawa and the Takeda clans.
A number of the major warlords in the Shinano region marched on the border of Kai Provincehoping to neutralize the power of the still-young Shingen before he had a chance to expand into their lands. However, planning to beat him down at Fuchu where word had it Shingen was gathering his forces for a standthey were unprepared when Takeda forces suddenly came down upon them at the Battle of Sezawa.
Taking advantage of their confusion, Shingen was able to win a quick victory, which set the stage for his drive into Shinano lands that same year and his successful Siege of Uehara. The young warlord made considerable advances into the region, conquering the Suwa headquarters in the Siege of Kuwabara before moving into central Shinano with the defeat of both Tozawa Yorichika and Takato Yoritsugu in the Siege of Fukuyo and Battle of Ankokuji.
In he took Uchiyama and won the Battle of Odaihara. Inhe took Shika. However, the warlord was checked at Uedahara by Murakami Yoshikiyolosing two of his generals in a heated battle which Murakami won.
Shingen managed to avenge this loss and the Murakami clan was eventually defeated in the Sieges of Toishi.
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The feud between them became legendary, and they faced each other on the battlefield five times in the Battles of Kawanakajima. The conflict between the two that had the fiercest fighting, and might have decided victory or defeat for one side or the other, was the fourth battle, during which the famous tale arose of Uesugi Kenshin 's forces clearing a path through the Takeda troops and Kenshin engaging Shingen in single combat.
The tale has Kenshin attacking Shingen with his sword while Shingen defends with his iron war fan or tessen. Both lords lost many men in this fight, and Shingen in particular lost two of his main generals, Yamamoto Kansuke and his younger brother Takeda Nobushige. His son was confined to the Toko temple, where he died two years later; it is not known whether his death was natural or ordered by his father. Inhe captured KatsuraoWada, Takashima and Fukuda.
In he took FukushimaKannomineMatsuo and Yoshioka. Takeda Shingen then took Kuragano in and Minowa Castle.