Southern Ocean - Wikipedia
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans, with an area of about . In the southeast, the Atlantic merges into the Indian Ocean. .. The apparent fit between the coastlines of the two continents was noted on the first maps . This did not last, however, and temperatures quickly dropped; at CE summer. The Holy Quran mentioned that there is a barrier between two seas that meet and that they do not transgress. God has said: He Why does the Atlantic and Pacific oceans' water not mix? Surah Al-Furqaan (The Standard) This is a. The Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans merge into icy waters around Antarctica. . Many bathypelagic animals do not have eyes because they are unneeded in the dark. or ratified the treaty (including the U.S.), it is regarded as standard. Water and land transportation meet there, and so do people of.
Cape Point is Where Two Oceans Meet: Cape Town South Africa
With a great detour to the east, almost to the coast of South America, the expedition regained Tahiti for refreshment. He thereby laid open the way for future Antarctic exploration by exploding the myth of a habitable southern continent. Cook's most southerly discovery of land lay on the temperate side of the 60th paralleland he convinced himself that if land lay farther south it was practically inaccessible and without economic value.
In a voyage from toJames Weddell commanded the ton brig Jane, accompanied by his second ship Beaufoy captained by Matthew Brisbane.
Together they sailed to the South Orkneys where sealing proved disappointing. They turned south in the hope of finding a better sealing ground.
A few icebergs were sighted but there was still no sight of land, leading Weddell to theorize that the sea continued as far as the South Pole. Another two days' sailing would have brought him to Coat's Land to the east of the Weddell Sea but Weddell decided to turn back. A few months later Smith returned to explore the other islands of the South Shetlands archipelago, landed on King George Islandand claimed the new territories for Britain.
Parts of her wreckage were found months later by sealers on the north coast of Livingston Island South Shetlands. It is unknown if some survivor managed to be the first to set foot on these Antarctic islands.
The first confirmed sighting of mainland Antarctica cannot be accurately attributed to one single person. It can, however, be narrowed down to three individuals. According to various sources,    three men all sighted the ice shelf or the continent within days or months of each other: On 30 JanuaryBransfield sighted Trinity Peninsulathe northernmost point of the Antarctic mainland, while Palmer sighted the mainland in the area south of Trinity Peninsula in November Von Bellingshausen's expedition also discovered Peter I Island and Alexander I Islandthe first islands to be discovered south of the circle.
Historical maps showing a southern ocean between Antarctica and the continents of South America, Africa and Australia map by French cartographer Alain Manesson Mallet from his publication Description de L'Univers. Shows a sea below both the Atlantic and Pacific oceans at a time when Tierra del Fuego was believed joined to Antarctica.
Easily one-half of all colonies were failures in the first two centuries of European settlement. Some colonies were lost through conquest, others were abandoned, especially because of indigenous resistance, while still others, such as the English settlement at Roanoke, simply disappeared.
By the eighteenth century a variety of colonial styles had emerged in the Atlantic. Trade factories particularly in regions where indigenous economies provided desirable goodsplantations, and town and urban settlements were scattered around the western part of the Atlantic Ocean. In some of these settlements, Europeans were dependent on amicable relations with indigenous people in order to secure commodities.
Europeans had displaced indigenous rulers, and in some regions indigenous people themselves had disappeared, replaced by Europeans and especially by Africans. These mature colonial societies had in most places established their own viable institutional lives, with churches, schools, colleges, social organizations, and institutions of governance in place to allow Creole elites to shape their own colonial world, although still under the regulation either attentive or neglectful of metropolitan governments.
European incursions were violent affairs, yet disease explains the diminished populations of the Americas more fully than does the brutality of conquest. The people of the Americas had been isolated for thousands of years not only from the Eurasian land mass, but also from many of the endemic and epidemic diseases familiar to Europeans and generally endured in childhood—smallpox, chicken poxmumps, measles—all of which were transported by European mariners, soldiers, and merchants.
Disease also preempted conflict: When epidemics hit, an infected population might plummet as much as 90 percent. Epidemic diseases dramatically reshaped American societies. They facilitated European conquest, encouraged Americans to convert to Christianity, shattered connections to local traditions and histories, and caused the demise of some tribes and ethnicities altogether and the reformulation of others. But pathogens were not the only travelers on European ships across the Atlantic.
Plants and animals wreaked their own havoc. Pigs, cows, sheep, goats, and horses all damaged native crops that had not previously required protection from large domestic animals. America, in return, offered new food crops to the rest of the world. Maize, tomatoes, peppers, gourds, peanuts, and beans were American crops that transformed diets worldwide.
Although American populations plummeted in the wake of contact, the diffusion of American food crops ultimately led to an increase in the world's population. And, finally, insects traveled across the Atlantic, none more destructive than diseasebearers such as the Aedes aegypti or the Anopheles mosquitoes, both of which flourished in the transformed arable lands of the tropics and among populations of newly arrived Europeans.
The most precious commodities were minerals: The Spanish fleet system, which saw all the riches of America travel to Spain in a convoy of ships, flaunted this wealth for all to see. The discovery of gold in Brazil at Minas Gerais in the s similarly tantalized people with the promise of quick riches.
Other commodities, especially food crops such as sugar, rice, and grains; luxury consumables such as tobacco and chocolate; dye goods such as indigo, madder, and cochineal; naval stores ; and pelts, while less immediately lucrative, were in the long run of considerable economic and cultural value.
These commodities transformed European tastes, diets, and economies; reoriented indigenous economies; depleted environmental and human resources; and generated enormous labor demands. The vital trades that emerged contributed to new cities in America: In Europe cities grew as a direct result of the wealth and activity of Atlantic trade, as was true for Seville, Glasgow an important tobacco trading centerBristol, Liverpool, and Nantes.
Some commodities, such as sugar, created new worlds of their own.
Sugar did not require the Atlantic Ocean for familiarity among Europeans, who encountered it as a luxury commodity used as a spice from their first forays to the eastern Mediterranean. But sugar's migration out of the Mediterranean and into areas of the south Atlantic well suited for its cultivation and modified to enhance the environment for production—particularly Brazil and the Caribbean—meant that the crop moved from a luxury to a staple. Sugar, moreover, demanded laborers who could be forced to work around the clock to satisfy sugar's cycle: For other commodities, such as pelts or dyewood, Europeans initially tried to trade with indigenous people.
It is easy to overestimate the power of European traders and the appeal of their commodities. While much that Europeans offered was useful, in semisedentary societies there was a natural limit to the number of goods people wanted to transport with them from one home to another. Moreover, recipients of trade goods altered their function: Indigenous people did not trade unthinkingly.
European weaponry, for example, had limited utility in some conditions of indigenous conflict. A musket would not fire in the rain; at night, a musket flash would reveal the location of a hidden attacker. And weapons required constant maintenance. Thus indigenous people adapted European commodities for their own use.
When the barter economy no longer enabled Europeans to extract the commodities and, later, the plantation labor they required, they resorted to slavery, as was the case in Brazil. The range of commodities identified in the Americas was great, and the extraction of some commodities prompted profound environmental and social transformations. In Peru, Indians were compelled to toil in the silver mines, a debilitating and deadly labor. In North America, the French quest for pelts altered indigenous cultures and economies.
Among the Montagnais of North America, for example, women produced 65 percent of daily calories through their farming activities, and held a significant position in society because of the value of the food they produced. The Montagnais, moreover, were matrilocal. But as hunters, men controlled access to furs, and thus controlled trade with Europeans. Through trade, they acquired goods—such as alcohol and metal tools—that conferred social prestige.
Christianity, with its insistence on patriarchal family arrangements, likewise elevated the authority of men. Thus European trade and culture could alter indigenous gender conventions and cultural practices. Hunters also pushed farther inland in search of animals, not only encroaching on territory claimed by others—leading to overt conflicts, made more deadly with new European weapons—but also depleting the supply of animals.
While the impact of European trade demands in the Americas could be enormous, historians continue to debate the impact of European trade with Africa. African rulers were able to dictate the terms of trade. Goods were produced specifically for export to European markets.