Tigris-Euphrates river system | river system, Asia | danunah.info
The Tigris is the eastern member of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other This stretch of 44 km is the only part of the river that is located in Syria . Close to its confluence with the Euphrates, the Tigris splits into several. Engineers are due to start filling the reservoir this month. received the waters of Mesopotamia's two great rivers, the Tigris and Euphrates, as they . Mr Agalday, who sells tea to tourists in a small café overlooking the town. The Euphrates is the longest and one of the most historically important . water diversion structure built in the Tigris–Euphrates river system. By far the largest dam in GAP is the Atatürk Dam, located c.
Further downstream, two other distributary channels branch off the Al-Musharrah and Al-Kahlawhich feed the Hawizeh Marshes.
The main channel continues southwards and is joined by the Al-Kassarahwhich drains the Hawizeh Marshes. According to Pliny and other ancient historians, the Euphrates originally had its outlet into the sea separate from that of the Tigris.
The port city of Basra straddles the Shatt al-Arab. In ancient times, many of the great cities of Mesopotamia stood on or near the Tigris, drawing water from it to irrigate the civilization of the Sumerians.
Turkey reassures Iraq over water supply as Tigris River levels dip amid dam work
Notable Tigris-side cities included NinevehCtesiphonand Seleuciawhile the city of Lagash was irrigated by the Tigris via a canal dug around B. Navigation[ edit ] The Tigris has long been an important transport route in a largely desert country.
Shallow-draft vessels can go as far as Baghdad, but rafts are needed for transport upstream to Mosul.
General Francis Rawdon Chesney hauled two steamers overland through Syria in to explore the possibility of an overland and river route to India. One steamer, the Tigris, was wrecked in a storm which sank and killed twenty.
The date palm is indigenous to the region. Five-stamen tamarisk and mesquite form thickets along the lower and middle courses of the Tigris and its tributaries, up to an elevation of about 3, feet 1, metres. Licorice is sufficiently plentiful to allow exports. Animal life Wild pigs are common in the marshes and have spread into newly planted eucalyptus groves in other parts of the alluvial plain.
Jackals, hyenas, and mongooses are found along the rivers in southern Iraq, and a large variety of Indian jungle cat reportedly still inhabits remote tamarisk thickets. Lions were last sighted along the Tigris in Foxes, wolves, and gazelles are common in the alluvial plain, and some of those animals range as far north as central Anatolia.
Wild pigs foreground and traditional housing background in the marshland between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, southern Iraq. There are several kinds of viper and a small cobra, as well as a variety of nonvenomous snakes. Lizards can reach lengths of nearly 2 feet 0. Frogs, toads, and turtles abound in the rivers and marshes. Members of the carp family are the dominant freshwater fish of the Tigris-Euphrates system. Barbels weighing as much as pounds kg have been recorded.
There are several varieties of catfish, as well as spiny eels. The Tigris River flowing through Baghdad. The way of life varies from the nomadism of the small remaining numbers of desert Bedouin to the settled condition of the villagers fellahin in the agricultural districts. The traditional pattern of village life among the fellahin in Iraq suffered severe disruptions, from both general societal forces and protracted warfare, during the second half of the 20th century.
For centuries, the plains of northern Iraq furnished winter pasture for Kurdish and Arab tribes. In the early 17th century, the Ottoman sultan Murad IV settled Turkmen in the region in an effort to secure his communications with Baghdad. The majority of Kurds receded into the Assyrian plain and the mountains of northern Iraq, western Iran, and eastern Anatolia.
The Kurds now comprise settled, seminomadic, and fully nomadic groups, often with members of the same tribe carrying on each of the subsistence strategies.
Both rivers in their upper courses run through areas that are predominantly Kurdish. Economy The economic life of the Tigris-Euphrates basin continues to depend heavily on the waters of the rivers, even though oil revenues have also played a dominant role in Iraq.
Modern water-control technology has reduced the devastating effects of the flood-and-drought cycle, but at a cost of desiccated marshlands and decreased natural replenishment of soil nutrients. The rivers have two flood periods: The sheer volume of floodwater endangers the bunds embankments within which the rivers are confined in their lower courses.
The primary requirement of river control, therefore, is to maintain an effective system of diversion and storage, both as a precaution against the kind of inundation that threatened Baghdad as recently as and as a means of retaining the floodwaters for distribution in the hot season.
Agriculture and irrigation The rivers are high at the wrong time of year for most crops except riceso that cultivation by direct inundation generally cannot be practiced. The initiation of massive irrigation projects in Turkey heralds unprecedented change for the piedmont area of southeastern Anatolia. Historically, the agriculture of that zone, as well as of northern Iraq and Syria, had depended entirely on rainfall. Some minor irrigation by means of mechanical lifts long has been practiced in northern Syria, where vines, olives, tobacco, fruits, and grains have been the mainstays.
In Iraq the major field crops are wheat, barley, millet, rice, corn maizeand sorghum.
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Date palms have been prized in Mesopotamia since ancient times. Modern palm groves are often interspersed with other fruit trees and vegetable gardens.
On some parts of the Tigris the diameter of traditional wheel lifts can exceed 50 feet 15 metres.
The number of pumps available for use by individual farmers has increased dramatically. There are three kinds of canals: The principal canal systems are the following: While intensive irrigation has supported Mesopotamian agriculture for thousands of years, it has caused—in combination with poor drainage—the progressive destruction of the soil through salinization. Irrigation water from the rivers, itself slightly saline, activates mineral residues in the soil, which rise to the surface through evaporation.
A simple, traditional method—alternate-year fallowing—can halt or at least retard the deterioration. One study of Sumerian records from the 3rd millennium bce has suggested that an understanding of the salinization process led to a shift from wheat to the more salt-resistant barley.
Although that interpretation has been questioned, it appears certain that the ancients recognized the long-term ill effects of overirrigation. Navigation The traditional vessel for downstream transportation on both rivers was the kalak—a raft of timber supported on inflated goatskins.
Kalaks could carry loads of up to 35 tons, including people and donkeys, and could take as little as a few days to travel from Mosul to Baghdad. Upon arrival the rafts were disassembled, the goods and timbers sold, and the skins deflated and loaded on donkeys for the return trip north.
Balams are slender, double-ended, flat-bottom craft with a shallow draft. Until the s gufa s—huge circular coracles of basketwork, coated with bitumen and capable of carrying up to 20 passengers—were in regular use in the vicinity of Baghdad.
Tigris - Wikipedia
The marsh dwellers of southern Iraq use a variety of motorized boats up to 50 feet 15 metres in length, along with balams and other traditional craft. The ancient trade route from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean followed the right bank of the Euphrates almost as far north as AleppoSyria. Since Turkey, Syria, and especially Iraq have developed major road systems throughout the Tigris-Euphrates region.
The Iraqi network was badly damaged, however, during the Persian Gulf War in and was further disrupted in A mass of data on the environmentsoils, flora, fauna, land use, settlement patterns, and artifactual history of the entire region has become available through geomorphologic, hydrologic, and archaeological surveys.
A full assessment of tectonic movement, sea-level oscillation, deposition of alluvium, river shifts, and long-term patterns of climatic change has been hampered by a lack of data from Iraq, although important information on some of those processes has been obtained by studying the Persian Gulf. Air Force Different explanations, for example, have been given for the way in which the plains were formed and the present-day coastline created.