In what country do the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers meet? | danunah.info
The Euphrates is the longest and one of the most historically important .. By far the largest dam in GAP is the Atatürk Dam, located c. 55 kilometres (34 mi) northwest of Şanlıurfa. This metre-high ( ft). Iraq Tigris & Euphrates Rivers From Space - Stock Image . legendary site of the Garden of Eden, where the Euphrates and Tigris rivers meet in Southern Iraq. It comprises the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, which follow roughly parallel courses Aerial and satellite photographs and maps can only begin to show the .
The Euphrates, by contrast, builds its bed at a level considerably above the alluvial plain and has been used throughout history as the main source of Mesopotamian irrigation. After flowing southwest to a point only miles km east of the Mediterranean Seathe Euphrates bends south and southeast into a relatively barren part of Syria, where the cultivable floodplain is no more than a few miles wide. Ample precipitation in the northern reaches of both those tributaries allowed the creation of major cities in ancient times and now supports intensive agriculture.
Below the border with Iraq, the river once again narrows to an alluvial strip between limestone escarpments. A barrage a low dam for diverting water at Al-Hindiyyah that collapsed in the late 19th century was replaced in by the present structure. The Al-Hindiyyah branch has been the main channel for several years. Below Al-Kifl, Al-Hindiyyah, which previously was uncontrollable and tended to dissipate itself in marshes, has been regulated and now supports large-scale rice production.
Tigris–Euphrates river system - Wikipedia
Several major irrigation, drainage, and desalinization projects were halted by the Iran-Iraq War in the s, the Persian Gulf War —91and the subsequent trade embargo on Iraq during the s. There were also disruptions of those functions during the Iraq War — In Baghdad and its environs, artificial embankments line the Tigris. At Al-Qurnah, the principal channel joins the Euphrates, fed by the outflow of those same marshlands, to form the Shatt al-Arab.
The Karkheh River is a minor left-bank tributary from Iran. The agricultural belt along the Shatt al-Arab, no more than 3 miles 5 km wide on either side, is the richest area of date palm cultivation in the world.
Irrigation occurs when high tide in the Persian Gulf forces the fresh water of the river to back up and overflow into creek beds. Hydrology The regime of the Tigris and Euphrates depends heavily on winter rains and spring snowmelt in the Taurus and Zagros mountains. The rate of evaporation on the river has increased to as much as 50 percent with the creation of large reservoirs and related irrigation areas behind a number of dams.
The precipitous flow of its tributaries makes the Tigris more susceptible than the Euphrates to short-term flooding, and its short length brings its annual flood period a month earlier.
Those estimates are roughly twice the values calculated for the Euphrates. In flood time the two rivers together carry as much as three million tons of eroded material from the highlands in a single day. Climate The Tigris and Euphrates make habitable and productive one of the harshest environments in the world. Precipitation is light in the lower reaches of the Tigris and Euphrates but increases considerably at higher elevations in their source areas.
In the higher elevations, where the rivers have their upper courses, winter winds are light and variable. Much of the precipitation falls as snow, which can lie in some places for half the year. During winter, the mean temperature in the mountains is well below freezing, so that agriculture comes to a halt and communications are restricted. The mounting flow is augmented in their middle courses by seasonal rainfall, which reaches its peak between March and May.
In the lower courses of the rivers in the alluvial plain, rain can be torrential in winter but usually does not exceed 8 inches mm per year. Humidity in most areas is as low as 15 percent. Dust storms, which occur throughout the year, are especially frequent in the summer. Most wind-borne dust consists of particles of clay and silt mixed with minute fragments of shell, which are from a remnant dune belt that has been formed from abandoned irrigated fields and dried-up marshes in the area between the two rivers.
Only occasionally are there true sandstorms, bearing material from the western desert. Plant life In ancient times, oak, pistachio, and ash forests covered the mountains and foothills through which the upper Tigris and Euphrates pass. New plantings, particularly in Turkey, supplement the scattered remnants of those forests today. In the steppe zone to the south of the mountains, some vegetation can flourish year-round, but the growing season in most nonirrigated areas is quite brief; the wildflowers and other plants that appear in spring die off in the heat of May and June.
In the driest zones, camel thorn and prosopis are the dominant shrubs. The densest communities of plants exist along the rivers and in the marshes. Various reeds and the narrow-leaved cattail are abundant, and the giant mardi reedwhich reaches a height of up to 25 feet 8 metreshas been used as a versatile construction material since antiquity.
The Euphrates poplar and a species of willow grow in small belts beside the rivers and canals; the poplar provides strong timber for construction and boat building, as well as handles for tools. The date palm is indigenous to the region. Five-stamen tamarisk and mesquite form thickets along the lower and middle courses of the Tigris and its tributaries, up to an elevation of about 3, feet 1, metres. Licorice is sufficiently plentiful to allow exports.
Animal life Wild pigs are common in the marshes and have spread into newly planted eucalyptus groves in other parts of the alluvial plain. Jackals, hyenas, and mongooses are found along the rivers in southern Iraq, and a large variety of Indian jungle cat reportedly still inhabits remote tamarisk thickets. Lions were last sighted along the Tigris in Foxes, wolves, and gazelles are common in the alluvial plain, and some of those animals range as far north as central Anatolia.
Wild pigs foreground and traditional housing background in the marshland between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, southern Iraq.
There are several kinds of viper and a small cobra, as well as a variety of nonvenomous snakes. Lizards can reach lengths of nearly 2 feet 0. Frogs, toads, and turtles abound in the rivers and marshes. Members of the carp family are the dominant freshwater fish of the Tigris-Euphrates system. Barbels weighing as much as pounds kg have been recorded. There are several varieties of catfish, as well as spiny eels.
The Tigris River flowing through Baghdad. The way of life varies from the nomadism of the small remaining numbers of desert Bedouin to the settled condition of the villagers fellahin in the agricultural districts. The traditional pattern of village life among the fellahin in Iraq suffered severe disruptions, from both general societal forces and protracted warfare, during the second half of the 20th century. For centuries, the plains of northern Iraq furnished winter pasture for Kurdish and Arab tribes.
Although today nothing of it survives due to human interference, research suggests that the Euphrates Valley would have supported a riverine forest.
Species characteristic of this type of forest include the Oriental planethe Euphrates poplarthe tamariskthe ash and various wetland plants. Species like gazelleonager and the now-extinct Arabian ostrich lived in the steppe bordering the Euphrates valley, while the valley itself was home to the wild boar. Carnivorous species include the gray wolfthe golden jackalthe red foxthe leopard and the lion.
The Syrian brown bear can be found in the mountains of Southeast Turkey. The presence of European beaver has been attested in the bone assemblage of the prehistoric site of Abu Hureyra in Syria, but the beaver has never been sighted in historical times.
Dams in IraqTabqa Damand Southeastern Anatolia Project Map in French showing the locations of dams and barrages built in the Syro — Turkish part of the Euphrates basin The Hindiya Barrage on the Iraqi Euphrates, based on plans by British civil engineer William Willcocks and finished inwas the first modern water diversion structure built in the Tigris—Euphrates river system.
Iraq's largest dam on the Euphrates is the Haditha Dam ; a 9-kilometre-long 5.
Tigris-Euphrates river system
With a maximum capacity of Via the Shatt al-Hayythe Euphrates is connected with the Tigris. The largest canal in this network is the Main Outfall Drain or so-called "Third River;" constructed between and It also allows large freight barges to navigate up to Baghdad.
Environmental impact of reservoirs Keban Dam in Turkeythe first dam on the Euphrates after it emerges from the confluence of the Kara Su and the Murat Su Qal'at Ja'bar in Syriaonce perched on a hilltop overlooking the Euphrates valley but now turned into an island by the flooding of Lake Assad The construction of the dams and irrigation schemes on the Euphrates has had a significant impact on the environment and society of each riparian country. The dams constructed as part of GAP — in both the Euphrates and the Tigris basins — have affected villages and almostpeople have been resettled elsewhere.
The creation of reservoirs with large surfaces in countries with high average temperatures has led to increased evaporation ; thereby reducing the total amount of water that is available for human use.