Chapter 3: Big Theories of Intimate Relationships | Intimate Relationships: W. W. Norton StudySpace
Knapp's relational development model portrays relationship development as a ten step process . of bonding too quickly; meaning, sufficient breadth and depth (see: Social penetration theory) was not established during the previous stages. Self-in-relation theory evolved as a collaborative effort based on research regarding women's psychological development (Jordan, et al., ). Previous. The Sequence of Relationship Development. Filter Theory. Wheel Theory. Stimulus-Value-Role Theory. The Process of Relationship Development.
Strictly speaking, phase transitions can both manifest correlation and differentiation events, in the direction of diminution of degrees of freedom, and in the opposite direction disruption of correlations. However, the expanding universe picture presents a framework in which there appears to be a direction of phase transitions toward differentiation and correlation, in the universe as a whole, over time.
This picture of progressive development of order in the observable universe as a whole is at variance with the general framework of the Steady State theory of the universe, now generally abandoned. It also appears to be at variance with an understanding of the Second law of thermodynamics which would view the universe as an isolated system which would at some posited equilibrium be in a maximally random set of configurations.
Two prominent cosmologists have provided slightly varying but compatible explanations of how the expansion of the universe allows ordered, or correlated, relational regimes to arise and persist, notwithstanding the second law of thermodynamics.
David Layzer  and Eric Chaisson. Chaisson summarizes the argument as "In an expanding universe actual entropy … increases less than the maximum possible entropy"  thus allowing for, or requiring, ordered negentropic relationships to arise and persist.
Chaisson depicts the universe as a non-equilibrium process, in which energy flows into and through ordered systems, such as galaxies, stars, and life processes. This provides a cosmological basis for non-equilibrium thermodynamicstreated elsewhere to some extent in this encyclopedia at this time.
In terms which unite non-equilibrium thermodynamics language and relational analyses language, patterns of processes arise and are evident as ordered, dynamic relational regimes. Basic levels[ edit ] There seems to be agreement that life is a manifestation of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, both as to individual living creatures and as to aggregates of such creatures, or ecosystems.
Knapp's relational development model - Wikipedia
In such systems, energy feeds through a stable, or correlated, set of dynamic processes, both engendering the system and maintaining the stability of the ordered, dynamic relational regime. A familiar example of such a structure is the Red Spot of Jupiter.
In the s, Eric Schnieder and J. Kaye  began to develop the concept of life working off differentials, or gradients e. Schneider and Dorion Sagan have since elaborated on the view of life dynamics and the ecosystem in Into the Cool.
As noted above, Chaisson  has provided a conceptual grounding for the existence of the differentials, or gradients, off which, in the view of Kaye, Schneider, Sagan and others, life works. Those differentials and gradients arise in the ordered structures such as suns, chemical systems, and the like created by correlation processes entailed in the expansion and cooling processes of the universe.
Two investigators, Robert Ulanowicz  and Stuart Kauffman. In this construct, a group of elements catalyse reactions in a cyclical, or topologically circular, fashion. Several investigators have used these insights to suggest essential elements of a thermodynamic definition of the life process, which might briefly be summarized as stable, patterned correlated processes which intake and dissipate energy, and reproduce themselves.
In this approach, an ecosystem is a system of networks of relationships a common viewpoint at presentwhich can be quantified and depicted at a basic level in terms of the degrees of order or organization manifested in the systems.
Two prominent investigators, Lynn Margulis and, more fully, Leo Buss  have developed a view of the evolved life structure as exhibiting tiered levels of dynamic aggregation of life units. In each level of aggregation, the component elements have mutually beneficial, or complementary, relationships.
Social organization[ edit ] Social network theory has in recent decades expanded into a large field reaching across a large range of topics. Among other things, social network analyses are now applied to political, professional, military, and other closely attended subject matters. The internet, because of its low cost, broad reach, and combinatorial capacity, has become a prominent example of social networking, as is evident in this encyclopedia, YouTube, Facebook, and other recent developments.
As a readily available illustration of a dynamic relational network system, at the human technology level, the internet has become a subject for analyses of how networks of relationships can arise and function. Related areas of current interest[ edit ] Second law of thermodynamics[ edit ] The development of non equilibrium thermodynamics and the observations of cosmological generation of ordered systems, identified above, have engendered proposed modifications in the interpretation of the Second Law of Thermodynamics, as compared with the earlier interpretations on the late 19th and the 20th century.
For example, Chaisson and Layzer have advanced reconciliations of the concept of entropy with the cosmological creation of order. In another approach, Schneider and D. Sagan, in Into the Cool and other publications, depict the organization of life, and some other phenomena such as benard cellsas entropy generating phenomena which facilitate the dissipation, or reduction, of gradients without in this treatment visibly getting to the prior issue of how gradients have arisen.
The ubiquity of power law and log-normal distribution manifestations in the universe[ edit ] The development of network theories has yielded observations of widespread, or ubiquitous, appearance of power law and log-normal distributions of events in such networks, and in nature generally.
Both Buchanan and Barabasi reported the demonstrations of a variety of investigators that such power law distributions arise in phase transitions. In Barabasi's characterization "…if the system is forced to undergo a phase transition … then power laws emerge — nature's unmistakable sign that chaos is departing in favor of order.
The theory of phase transitions told us loud and clear that the road from disorder to order is maintained by the powerful forces of self organization and paved with power laws. Emergence[ edit ] The relational regime approach includes a straightforward derivation of the concept of emergence. From the perspective of relational theories of order, emergent phenomena could be said to be relational effects of an aggregated and differentiated system made of many elements, in a field of relationships external to the considered system, when the elements of the considered system, taken separately and independently, would not have such effects.
For example, the stable structure of a rock, which allows very few degrees of freedom for its elements, can be seen to have a variety of external manifestations depending on the relational system in which it may be found. It could impede fluid flow, as a part of a retaining wall.
If it were placed in a wind tunnel, it could be said to induce turbulence in the flow of air around it. In contests among rivalrous humans, it has sometimes been a convenient skull cracker. Or it might become, though itself a composite, an element of another solid, having similarly reduced degrees of freedom for its components, as would a pebble in a matrix making up cement. See the composite material article for a useful description of how varying components can, in a composite, yield effects within an external field of use, or relational setting, which the components alone would not yield.
This perspective has been advanced by Peter Corning, among others.
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When talking with one person over time, someone could make more topics to talk about so the other person will start to open up and express what they feel about the different issues and topics. This helps the first person to move closer to getting to know the person and how they react to different things.
This is applicable when equal intimacy is involved in friendship, romance, attitudes and families. For instance, depth without breadth could be where only one area of intimacy is accessed.
This would be depth without breadth. An example would be when passing by an acquaintance and saying, "Hi, how are you? To get to the level of breadth and depth, both parties have to work on their social skills and how they present themselves to people.
They have to be willing to open up and talk to each other and express themselves. One person could share some information about their personal life and see how the other person responds.
If they do not want to open up the first time, the first person has to keep talking to the second person and have many conversations to get to the point where they both feel comfortable enough for them to want to talk to each other about more personal topics. The relationship between breadth and depth can be similar to that used in technology today. Pennington describes in a study that " With a click of the mouse to accept them as a "friend" roommates across the country can learn: Users of these platforms seem to feel obligated to share simple information as was listed by Pennington, but also highly personal information that can now be considered general knowledge.
In cases like this, there is depth without much breadth. For example, some cultures, like the Japanese, value personal privacy more than others. Therefore, a Japanese person may not self-disclose nearly as much or as enthusiastically as, say, a French person. Partners who come from different religious backgrounds may hesitate to share thoughts or attitudes that concern matters of faith. Men often refrain from expressing deep emotions out of fear of social stigma.
Such barriers can slow the rate of self-disclosure and even prevent relationships from forming. In theory, the more dissimilar two people are, the more difficult or unlikely self-disclosure becomes. Stranger-on-the-train phenomenon[ edit ] Most of the time individuals engage in self-disclosure strategically, carefully evaluating what to disclose and what to be reserved, since disclosing too much in the early stage of relationship is generally considered as inappropriate, which can end or suffocate a relationship.
Whereas, in certain contexts, self-disclosure does not follow the pattern. This exception is known as "stranger-on-the-train or plane or bus " phenomenon, in which individuals reveal personal information with complete strangers in public spaces rapidly.Sternberg's Theory of Love: Intimacy, Commitment, Passion
In such situations, self-disclosure is spontaneous rather than strategic. This specific concept can be known as verbal leakage, which is defined by Floyd as "unintentionally telling another person something about yourself". Some researchers argue that revealing our inner self to complete strangers is deemed as " cathartic exercise" or "service of confession", which allows individuals to unload emotions and express deeper thoughts without being haunted by the potential unfavorable comments or judgements.
Some researcher suggests that this phenomenon occurs because individuals feel less vulnerable to open up to strangers who they are not expected to see again. Individuals in a relationship who experience anxiety will find it difficult to divulge information regarding their sexuality and desires due to the perceived vulnerabilities in doing so.
In a study published by the Archives of Sexual Behaviorsocially anxious individuals generally attribute potential judgement or scrutiny as the main instigators for any insecurities in self-disclosing to their romantic partners. Rewards and costs assessment[ edit ] Social exchange theory[ edit ] Further information: Social exchange theory Social exchange theory states that humans weigh each relationship and interaction with another human on a reward cost scale without realizing it.
Theories of Interpersonal Relationship
If the interaction was satisfactory, then that person or relationship is looked upon favorably. But if an interaction was unsatisfactory, then the relationship will be evaluated for its costs compared to its rewards or benefits. People try to predict the outcome of an interaction before it takes place. Coming from a scientific standpoint, Altman and Taylor were able to assign letters as mathematical representations of costs and rewards.
They also borrowed the concepts from Thibaut and Kelley's in order to describe the relation of costs and rewards of relationships. Thibaut and Kelley's key concepts of relational outcome, relational satisfaction, and relational stability serve as the foundation of Irwin and Taylor's rewards minus costs, comparison level, and comparison level of alternatives.
A major factor of disclosure is an individual calculation in direct relation to benefits of the relationship at hand. Each calculation is unique in its own way because every person prefers different things and therefore will give different responses to different questions.
Social penetration theory
An example of how rewards and costs can influence behaviour is if an individual were to ask another individual on a date. If they say 'yes', then the first individual has gained a reward, making them more likely to repeat this action. However, if they reply with 'No', then they have received a punishment which in turn would stop them from repeating an action like that in the future. The more someone discloses to their partner, the greater the intimacy reward will be.
When the individuals involved in the relationship hold positive values in this calculation, intimacy proceeds at an accelerated rate.
In the relationship, if both parties are dyad, the cost exceeds the rewards. The relationship then will slow considerably, and future intimacy is less likely to happen. The basic formula in which some can process this in most situations is: Outcome[ edit ] This means that people want to maximize their rewards and minimize their costs when they are in a relationship with somebody. According to Altman and Taylor, relationships are sustained when they are relatively rewarding when the outcome is positive and discontinued when they are relatively costly when the outcome is negative.
As defined by Thibaut and Kelley, comparison level is the standard by which individuals evaluate the desirability of group membership. A group is defined as "two or more interdependent individuals who influence one another through social interaction". In this instance, the group refers to a dyadic relationship, but it can really be extended to any type of group. That is, when groups fall above the CL they are seen as being satisfying to the individual, and when they fall below the CL they are seen as being unsatisfying.
We take an average of outcomes from the past as a benchmark to determine what makes us happy or sad so that we may develop the threshold, or comparison level, in which an outcome appears attractive. Past experiences shape one's thoughts and feelings about developing relationships, and in this way, an individual's CL is very much influenced by these previous relationships.
Comparison level of alternatives[ edit ] A person's CL is the threshold above which an outcome appears attractive. Comparison level only predicts when we are satisfied with membership in a given relationship, or group. Therefore, Thibaut and Kelley also say that people use a comparison level for alternatives to evaluate their outcomes.
Basically, CLalt is determined by "the worst outcome a person will accept and still stay in a relationship. However, even if a relationship is unhealthy, a person might choose to remain in it because it is better than what they perceive the real world to be. Trends and sequences are one of the major factors when evaluating a relationship.
Interpersonal communication[ edit ] The value of social penetration theory initially lies in the area of interpersonal communication. Some of the key findings are described as follows. Scholars also use this theory to examine other factors influencing the social penetration process in close friendships. As Mitchell and William put it, ethnicity and sex do have impact on the friendship foster. The survey results indicates that more breadth of topics occurs in penetration process in black friendship than white.
Nurses could apply the theory into daily interactions with patients, as doctors could in their articulations when consulting or announcing. In addition, the relationship between nonverbal behavior and the social penetration process has been of interest. Gender-based difference in self-disclosure[ edit ] Research demonstrates that there are significant gender differences in self-disclosure, particularly emotional self-disclosure, or expressing personal feelings and emotions, such as "Sometimes, I feel lonely to study abroad and to be away from my family.
In friendship between females, emotional attachments such as sharing emotions, thoughts, experiences, and supports are at the core, while friendships between males tend to focus on activities and companionships. In addition, there is a gender difference regarding to topics revealed. Men tend to disclose their strengths. On the contrary, women disclose their fear more. For example, lesbian friendships and intimate relationships are reliant on mutual self-disclosure and honesty.
The problem is that for many lesbians, this process is not always as simple as it may seem. A lot of these women involve themselves in groups that are solely made up of only lesbians or groups that are only made up of heterosexual women to avoid their true lesbian identity. It can be difficult for lesbian individuals to open-up about their sexual identities, because of the fear of being rejected or losing special relationships.
Early studies have shown that patients' self-disclosure is positively related to treatment outcomes. Farber puts it, in psychotherapy "full disclosure is more of an ideal than an actuality. Therefore, the trust built over time among the patient and the therapist is essential to reach a mode of deep discussion. To strengthen the alliance, cultivating a comfortable atmosphere for self-disclosure and self-discovery is important.
When the therapist shared self-referent information to the patient it created trust and the patients perceived the therapist as being more "human.
Individuals with social phobia tend to adopt strategic avoidance of social interactions, which makes it challenging for them to disclose themselves to others and reveal emotions. Self-disclosure is the key to foster intimate relationship, in which individuals can receive needed social supports.
Social penetration theory - Wikipedia
Close friendship and romantic relationship are two major sources for social supports, which have protective effect and play a crucial role in helping individuals with social phobia to cope with distress.
In service industry, compared with securing new customers, maintaining long-term relationships with existing customers is more cost-effective. The received information regarding to the taste and preference of the customers then can be used to provide tailored services, which in turn can positively strengthen customers' trust, commitment and loyalty toward the restaurant.
Expertise is positively correlated to both customer and server disclosure. Some scholars explored the arena of company policy making, demonstrating that the effect company policies have on the employees, ranging from slight attitudinal responses such as dissatisfaction to radical behavioral reactions such as conflicts, fights and resignation.
In this way, sophisticated implementation of controversial policies is required Baack, Social penetration theory offers a framework allowing for an explanation of the potential issues. Media-mediated communication[ edit ] Self-disclosure in reality TV[ edit ] Reality TV shows are gaining popularity in the last decades, and the trend is still growing. Reality TV is a genre that is characterized with real-life situations and very intimate self-disclosure in the shows.
Self-disclosure in reality show can be considered as self-disclosure by media characters and the relationship between the audience and the media character is parasocial. Nonetheless, rapid self-disclorue of intimate layers is a norm in reality TV shows, and unlike in interpersonal interactions, viewers prefer early intimate disclosure and such disclosure leads to liking rather than inducing uncomfortable feeling.