Revelation 12 – a riddle of space and time . It may also be relevant (to show the close relationship between Poland and Lithuania) that a few. There will be enough space between each riddle and its answer to allow you to think You need to live through some tough times to get a respect for life and hone . yourself at the gym, bite off more than you can chew and ruin relationships. But he gives a very specific defintion of that relationship. To allow time to flow and contracted space to increase curvature our living in space.
In the center of the plain is an artificial lake created by the damming of rivers in the valley. By August, when the digging season starts, much of the water that is released from the reservoir beginning in early summer, has usually been absorbed, and the irrigated surface can again be used for agriculture by the local inhabitants.
References to the region in cuneiform texts break off abruptly at around this time. Prior to that, the region formed part of the network of trade routes that connected the Iranian highlands with Mesopotamia to the southwest.
The first urban civilizations had emerged in Mesopotamia in the 4th millennium BCE, and the survival of the cities was dependent on the maintenance of functional trading relationships. But via the Shahrizor plain it had access to regions in which metals were available. The region is first mentioned in these texts on clay tablets dating from the 3rd millennium BCE, at a time when the Shahrizor plain was part of the kingdom of Simurrum.
However, in the middle of the 2nd millennium BCE, the area disappears from the historical record, and is first mentioned again only in the 12th century BCE. What can explain this "dark age" which lasted for several centuries? Archaeological excavations are one tool, and here they were preceded by a program of satellite-based remote sensing to elucidate the history of settlement in the valley.
For instance, agriculture leaves an imprint on the landscape that is quite distinct from that left behind by stock-raising cultures. Her markedly interdisciplinary approach is one of reasons why she has been honored by the Princess Therese of Bavaria Foundation. The Foundation was set up with the aim of promoting the advancement of women in the sciences by drawing attention to their contributions to research, and explicitly recognizing their roles as exemplars for junior female researchers.
Having obtained her primary degree at Heidelberg University, she conducted research at the University of Chicago, before returning to Heidelberg, where she obtained her doctoral degree in She moved to the Institute for Near Eastern Archaeology at LMU inand since then her research has been supported by a number of competitive fellowships and grants.
It helps to know that there are also ways of reconciling child-rearing and family life with a successful career in archaeology. Surface finds of pottery recovered during field surveys have indicated that the oldest material dates from the 3rd millennium BCE. The geomagnetic detection of manmade structures within the mound was a significant find.
In the Ancient Near East, villages were constructed of baked clay bricks, and people built their dwellings on top of the ruins left behind by earlier generations. Gird-i Shamlu is 12 m high and occupies an area of several hectares, which indicates that it conceals the remains of structures that were erected over a period of thousands of years.
Indeed, the material recovered from the lowest levels date to the 4th and 3rd millennia BCE, while the pottery near the top of the mound originates from the 1st millennium BCE. Overall view of the Gird-i Shamlu.
Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich Typological studies of the pottery excavated at the site also reveal clear evidence for a change in the material culture of the settlement: The standard technology at the time involved the use of a potter's wheel. Have ten years really elapsed? Or am I right? Has just one year elapsed? Can I ask the question? Well, the answer is we are both right! Because time is relative, your time and my time are different, because we are moving differently.
Consequently we measure different intervals of time — ten years and one year respectively — between the same two events.
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And let me stress once again that this is a real effect, not the musings of some mad mathematician. It has actually been observed, though only for small durations in the case of human beings.
You can produce dramatically large twins effects using particle accelerators, though. But in this case the twins are subatomic particles. My entire journey is going to take only one year for your ten years. So my now and your now have got out of kilter with each other, just by the simple process of moving differently. And it would be impossible, of course, to have a Greenwich Mean Time for the entire cosmos. You see, that is the whole point.
There can be no absolute and universal time as Newton supposed. Whose time are we going to take for this universal time, this absolute time? The experimental evidence shows quite clearly there is no common now. I should add that it is not just motion that causes a time warp. Gravitation can do it as well. So if you live at the top of a high-rise building, clocks go a little bit faster than their counterparts at ground level. Does that mean as one approaches a black hole, where gravity is huge, time would stretch almost to the infinite?
The surface of a black hole represents an infinite time warp. However, this time dilation is purely relative: If you actually went to the surface of the black hole, time there would be exactly as it is anywhere else.
But comparing clocks there with Earth clocks you would deduce an enormous mismatch. This may be a completely ludicrous question, but if you were to approach a black hole would your perception of time change?
You see the whole point I am making is that in your own frame of reference time is simply time. That is why we say time is relative; your time and my time can be different, relative to each other.
I now have to raise the difficult question — well, for me, impossible — of block time.
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Curiously enough, he put that in a letter to the widow of his friend Michel Besso after he died. To console the poor woman? So the physicist treats time in much the same way as the Greeks treated space; that is, as a dimension.
There are three dimensions of space and one dimension of time. Like space, time is simply there. You see, here we sit surrounded by the landscape, and there it is! Well, if we now regard time as something that is also laid out before us — all at once, so to speak — then that is what I mean by the timescape. There are of course events, and there are intervals of time; we use clocks to measure those intervals of time just as we use rulers to measure intervals of space.
Space-time — the world — is simply all there at once. Well, Paul, I cannot escape the gravitational pull of my wrist-watch, or the pendulum. But let us imagine that there you are, the god-like physicist, gazing down on this timescape.
You can see the whole of time. The fact that the future can in some sense already exist is actually not the same thing as saying that the future is completely determined by the present.
Determinism means that states of the universe are completely fixed — determined — by earlier states; in other words, that the information needed to deduce, or construct, the future is already contained in the present state of the universe. However, it may be that the world is not deterministic. Nevertheless, we could still imagine a superbeing who can see the future, and see that it is not connected determinstically, rigidly, to the present state.
So the two concepts — determinism and knowledge of the future — are logically distinct. Okay, I accept that past, present and future are all equally real. For that is what determinism means. If the world was like that, then time would be a totally gratuitous thing, just a parameter that fulfils no physical function.
It would be just a bookkeeping device; as Wheeler said, stopping everything from happening at once, which would be very confusing! The Belgian chemist Ilya Prigogine summed it up rather nicely. He remarked that time in a completely deterministic universe would be rather like God turning the pages of a cosmic history book that is already written. There has of late been a bit of a rebellion against the deterministic way of looking at the universe, an attempt to rediscover time in some sense.13 Easy Riddles With Answers That Can Leave You Confused
And discoveries like quantum mechanics and chaos theory mean that few scientists still believe that the universe is strictly deterministic. Yes, I would say an openness. You object to the notion when applied to humans? Yes, that is correct. What I prefer to do is, rather than trying to find something special about humans that injects this mysterious thing called free will into our actions, I try to find something in the wider universe that can mirror that human freedom.
It seems to me that there is a kind of openness in nature in general, an openness to the future, that is present even in inanimate matter. Well, we now know from the theory of chaos, which has been so fashionable in recent years, that even in a system which is in a strict mathematical sense deterministic, nevertheless it is possible for it to still be unpredictable.
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In a so-called chaotic system, the future behaviour is so exquisitely sensitive to the initial conditions that the slightest change, the slightest error or perturbation, will cause it to do something dramatically different.
That is because the weather is a chaotic system. So we even know that a system which might be in a strictly mathematical sense deterministic, nevertheless is, for all practical purposes, unpredictable. And human freedom, I think, has something to do with that lack of predictability.
The human brain operates at the edge of chaos. Turning now to a completely different but equally baffling temporal topic, what about time travel?
Just as we can go to different parts of the landscape, driving around the desert here in our hire car, so we could perhaps visit different parts of the timescape. If the past and future exist, why not? The twins effect is essentially time travel into the future.
Recall that it is possible for me to go off on a one-year journey as measured in a rocket ship, and to return to you on Earth ten Earth-years later.
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In that case I have effectively travelled nine years into your future. You would travel into my future? I would have reached Earth-year in just one year of elapsed time in my frame of reference. So time travel into the future, as a one-way journey, is a reality. We can do it. However, travel into the past is a much tougher proposition. I should explain right at the outset that this is not quite like H.
But we cannot rule out travel into the past at our present state of knowledge. Well, it does indeed! I suppose the best known of the time travel paradoxes is the so-called grandfather paradox. Imagine if I were to go back years and seek out my grandfather as a young man and shoot him, what then would happen? If poor old Grandad is dead then Paul Davies would never have been born; but then Paul Davies could never become a time traveller.
We get inconsistent nonsense. This is always the problem with travel into the past — as opposed to the future — because the past is connected to the present and future through causality. If we go back and change the past we change the present as well, and that is a really major problem for the whole idea of travel into the past.
The hypothesis states that in some way nature must prevent us from travelling back into the past, even if it appears that the laws of physics will allow us to do it. That is a different state of affairs. You are right that it has often been conjectured that the arrow of time may turn around in a contracting universe. Explain what you mean by the arrow of time. I mean the fact that we see sequences of events all around us in nature that have a definite directionality to them.
In our last discussion we talked about the second law of thermodynamics, which says that the universe is irreversibly running down, the stars are burning out, people grow old, eggs break, and so on.
These are one-way-in-time processes: Conjectures about time running backwards are a little bit like saying that it is possible under some circumstances for the great cosmic movie, as it were, to run in reverse; for rivers to flow uphill, for broken eggs to reassemble themselves, for people to grow younger instead of older.
Plato himself wrote graphically about this scenario. And Thomas Gold and Stephen Hawking do now! The notion has been resurrected in its modern form by a number of people. In the s Thomas Gold suggested that the arrow of time — the directionality of physical processes — has something to do with the expansion of the universe.